Gardens of Schloss Charlottenburg, Berlin
(plan of the grounds
after Eosander von Göthe 1708)
In Flevoland: Polderland Garden of Love and Fire
of Daniel Libeskind,
Aardzee of Piet Slegers,
Sea Level of Richard Serra,
De Groene Kathedraal of Marinus Boezem
Observatorium van Robert Morris. This last piece of art is one of the few real Land Art projects.
In The Hague: Hemels Gewelf van James Turell
In Emmen Broken Circle and Spiral Hill of Robert Smithson.
Robert Morris, Observatorium
Photo: Gert Schutte
of using a paintbrush to make
Robert Morris would like to use a bulldozer'
Robert Smithson in Artforum, New York,
June 1967, no 5 pp. 36 - 40
Source: Museum De Paviljoens, Almere
One of my favorite landscapes... Bosco Sacro, Bomarzo
Fighting dragon Pegasus
Germany and Italy...
Hermitage, Bayreuth Detail Boboli Garden, Florence
Four pictures (1998) of the garden of Villa Garzoni, Collodi, also a lovely garden...
Lost Gardens of Heligan
Mud Maid, Lost Gardens Photo: markbagnall
De Hoge Veluwe (Holland)
Veluwe National Park encompasses
more than 5.000 hectares of
woodlands, moorland, grasslands
and sand drifts.
There are more than 40 kilometres of cycle paths.
The famous 1700 White Bikes are available free of charge at the Park entrances and the Visitor Centre.
The Park's different landscapes are home to a wide diversity of plant and animal species. From the rare Fritillary to the imposing Red Deer, from the Alcon Blue to the Dwarf Viper's-grass; they all live in the Park.
The Park is also home to dozens of Red List species, such as the Wheatear, the Wryneck, the Moor Frog and the Grass Snake.
The fauna, or animal life in the Park, is as diversified as its lavish flora. The Park is habitat to numerous animals: some hundreds of Red Deer, Roe and Mouflon, dozens of Wild Boar and lots and lots of smaller animals.
The Franse Berg is in fact an elongated former active dune, some 20 metres high. The hill was formed by a growing dune when large parts of the Veluwe were still sand drifts. “Towering” 65 metres above Amsterdam Ordnance Datum (ANP), it is the highest point of De Hoge Veluwe National Park. The name ‘Franse berg’ probably survived from the time French troops used this as an observation post during the French occupation of the Netherlands (1792-1813). The Franse Berg is now planted with oak coppice to retain the sand. The Kröller-Müller crypt rests on the south side of the hill. The crypt looks out over the Pampelse and Deelense Zands but is closed to the public.
Franse Berg forms the boundary between the wooded landscape to the north and the open landscape towards the south. The hill protects the northern area from wind and drift sand. It was one of Helene Kröller-Müller’s favourite spots. She died in 1939 and lies buried here together with Anton Kröller (deceased in 1941). The couple started buying land in the Veluwe in 1906, eventually creating a large fenced estate.
'Sitting quietly, doing nothing,
Spring comes and the grass grows by itself.'
Groups of skilled craftsmen called senzui kawaramono ('mountain, stream and riverbed people') were responsible for creating a new style of garden, known as karesansui ('dry mountain stream').
Heavily influenced by Zen Buddhism, groups of rocks represent mountains and waterfalls, and white sand is used to replace flowing water. This form of garden, not seen in any other part of the world, was probably influenced by Chinese ink-painted landscapes of barren mountains and dry riverbeds.
Zen gardens are not to everyone's taste - the apparent random positioning of unhewn rocky outcrops, some covered in moss, and the linear shaping of gravel are austere to those used to a profusion of borders and colour and wide expanses of lawn.
Western gardening is so much about statement and flourishes and crammy empty spaces with some eye-catching arrangement.
Zen gardens are the opposite. They are about reducing the number of elements to a minimum and using the spaces between to create a harmonious experience. They are about soothing the senses rather than stimulating them.
The Yin-Yang Garden
Balance and harmony are the heart of the Zen garden, reflecting the Tao symbol of yin and yang: the two opposing forces of nature - male/female, outer/inner, darkness/lightness. The opposites are harmonious, however, because they are mutually interdependent. They balance and maintain harmony. The dark and light coloured halves are mirror images making up a whole. In each half there is a tiny circle containing the other half's colour. This symbolizes that one cannot exist without the other, that yin and yang are inseparable.
So it is in the garden - yin is represented by sand and gravel. Zen gardens are dry, so this takes the place of water, which is a 'soft' yin element. This is counterbalanced by the 'hard' yang elements of rock or clumps of bamboo.
Individual rock groupings are planted to create harmonious shapes such as triangles, though it may be very subtle. The rocks are also symbolic of the mountains where the monks went to meditate, so these rocks are not just positioned on top but rooted firmly below the ground level of the garden.