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ARCHITECTUUR

NEPAL

Deel 2: Japan t/m Tibet      Deel 1: Canada t/m Italië , klik HIER

 

JAPAN   MONGOLIË   NEDERLAND   NEPAL   NOORWEGEN   RUSLAND   TIBET     


  PRAYER HOUSES, HOUSES OF WORSHIP

 JAPAN   MONGOLIA   NEPAL  NORWAY  RUSSIA   TIBET

 

JAPAN

Water Temple
 

Awaji Island , Tsuna-gun, Hyogo
Japan  

Tadao Ando 1991

One does not approach the inner sanctuary of the temple directly, but follows a circular path in which the color gradually becomes more and more intense. These silky smooth concrete walls eventually lead to the light source - The Inner Sanctuary.

The vermilion red color is most intense during sunset as light radiates through a western facing window.  This western light has symbolic meaning because Buddha originates from the west (India). 

 

 

MONGOLIË - MONGOLIA

Uit de ruïnes van Karakorum werd in de zestiende eeuw het eerste Tibetaans-boeddhistische kloostercomplex van Mongolië gebouwd:

Erdene Zuu (Honderd Schatten). Het werd geplunderd door hordes uit Mantsjoerije, herbouwd en in 1939 opnieuw verwoest, ditmaal op last van het stalinistische regime van Mongolië zelf. Gespaard bleven slechts drie van de 62 tempels. Op het hoogtepunt leefden er zo’n 1000 monniken. De monniken werden nu afgevoerd naar Siberië of direct vermoord.
Toen in 1990 het communisme ten val kwam, werd dit klooster weer religieus actief. Het heeft nu een klein beetje van zijn oude glorie terug. De drie aan Boeddha gewijde tempels zijn mooi. In een gebedshuis worden schitterende fresco's en wandkleden bewaard. De witte ommuring telt 108 stoepa's, ronde bouwwerken die typerend zijn voor het Tibetaanse boeddhisme.
Midden op het grotendeels lege terrein staat een stenen tafel met inscripties in diverse talen, die de tijd oproept van wereldveroveraar Dzjenghis Khan.
 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

Het Gandan klooster
Vanaf ongeveer 1830 groeide dit klooster uit tot een gemeenschap van 5000 monniken. Gandan werd een belangrijk centrum voor het bestuderen en praktiseren van de leer van de Boeddha. In 1938 vernietigden de communisten 900 kloosters in Mongolië. Ook Gandan werd niet gespaard. Vijf van de tempels werden vernietigd. De overige tempels werden gebruikt als onderkomen voor Russische beambten of als stallen voor hun paarden. In 1990 is men met de restauratie begonnen. Er schijnen nu weer ongeveer 900 monniken te verblijven.


 


 
links

met geel dak: Gandantegchenling

rose: Dedanprovantempel


Migjed Janraisig

Dechengalpa Datsan


 


 

Vajradhara

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NEDERLAND - HOLLAND

De oudste kerkgebouwen in Nederland dateren van rond het jaar 1000. Deze kerken zijn gebouwd in de Romaanse stijl: Massieve bouwwerken met kleine rondbogige ramen en deuren.
In de dertiende eeuw begon de gotische stijl in Nederland door te dringen. Enkele belangrijke veranderingen waren het gebruik van de spitsboog en de steunbeer. Deze toepassingen maakten het mogelijk om gebouwen te maken met meer ramen, vaak voorzien van glas-in-lood.
In de zeventiende eeuw kregen gebouwen vaak een strenge, symmetrische klassieke structuur. Dat was de tijd van het classicisme. Het was ook de tijd van de reformatie. De Republiek was protestants geworden. De protestanten namen de katholieke kerken in beslag, maar begonnen ook eigen kerken te bouwen. De katholieken maakten gebruik van schuilkelders. In de Zuidelijke Nederlanden bouwden zij kerken en kloosters in een barokke stijl, in het noorden konden ze pas in de negentiende eeuw weer eigen kerken bouwen, vaak in neostijlen.
In de twintigste eeuw werd er geëxperimenteerd met moderne, experimentele bouwstijlen. De nieuwste religieuze gebouwen zijn vaak bestemd voor immigranten.
Mozes en Aäronkerk (1841), Amsterdam

In de zeventiende eeuw bevond zich op deze plek een katholieke schuilkerk. Tussen 1837 en 1841 verrees hier een nieuwe kerk in neoclassicistische stijl, gewijd aan de heilige Anthonius van Padua, ontworpen door T.F. Suys. De architect Had zich laten inspireren door de Griekse Oudheid, hetgeen te zien is aan de zuilen en het driehoekig fronton. De torens zijn voorzien van klassieke pilasters.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Delden, N.H.Blasiuskerk (1118),
Dutch Reformed Blasius church,

Enschede, Grote Kerk (1480)

 



 

 

 

 

 


Enschede, Jacobuskerk (1933)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nijmegen, synagoge (1913), synagogue


Oldenzaal (Nl.), R.K. St.Plechelmusbasiliek (1150)

Oldenzaal (Nl.), Hilalmoskee,
Oldenzaal, Hilalmosque

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Schildwolde, gereformeerde kerk
Schildwolde, Calvinist Church

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Schildwolde, N.H.kerk (1686) en Juffertoren (1289),
Dutch Reformed Church and Juffer Tower

Slochteren (Nl.), N.H.kerk 1650,
Slochteren, Dutch Reformed Church, ©awagenvoorde

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Haarlem,de Grote of St. Bavokerk

Rotterdam, Griekse kerk,
Rotterdam, Greek church

 
   

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NEPAL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bhaktapur, Nepal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kathmandu, Pashupatinath

Bhaktapur

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Pashupatinath

   

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Norway  

NOORWEGEN . NORWAY

March 2012


The design proposal by CEBRA for the New Church of Vaaler is based on the most widespread symbol for the Christian church: the cross.
Located in the south eastern part of Norway, it is a strong visual symbol, which beautifully combines the horizontal with the vertical in its simplicity – and in its meaning the worldly with the heavenly. In the same way, the cross also represents the church’s fundamental function.
In the village there was an old wooden church, but it burned down in 2009. The church is of great importance for the local community. Therefore, the design of the new church has to combine a particular sensitivity and attention to the site’s culture-historical context with a modern architectural expression.
The building volume appears as a stairway to heaven -  a pictorial metaphor that can be found in several passages in the Bible and stands as a synonym for spiritual cognition.

For pictures of the design, copy and paste the next link:

http://www2.cebra.info/swfloader.asp?swf=ny_vaaler_kirke.swf&title=Ny Våler Kirke 

 


Design New Church Vaaler, Norway

 

RUSLAND - RUSSIA

The Ivan the Great Bell Tower is the tallest of the bell towers ringing the Moscow Kremlin complex, with a total height of 81 meters (266 feet). It was built for the Assumption, Archangel and Annunciation cathedrals, which do not have their own belfries, and is said to mark Moscow's precise geographic centre.
From 1329 Moscow's first stone bell tower stood on this site, affiliated with the Church of St. Ivan of the Ladder-under-the Bell, hence the name "Ivan" in the title. From 1505 to 1508 a new bell tower was erected next to the church on the foundation of the old tower, which gave it its name. At first it had two belfries on different levels, but in 1600 on the orders of Boris Godunov it was raised to its present height. Until the building of the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour it was the tallest building in old Moscow, and it was forbidden to put up any building in Moscow which was taller than the Bell Tower.
 

Assumption cathedral and bell tower

Ulitsa Varvarka, or Saint Barbara Street, is a narrow lane running east from Red Square through what had been the Zaryadye district. Situated in the heart of the capital along the Moscow River, it is one of the oldest parts of the city, dating to the 13th century, when it was home to the city's largest merchant district. Since it was so close to the Kremlin and the seat of power, the area was a casualty of grandiose Soviet urban planning schemes in the 20th century. Its narrow streets and yards were razed during Josef Stalin's rule as part of a massive slum-clearing project.

The highlights are the street's small, diverse churches, which are a welcome contrast to the gaudy splendor of nearby St. Basil's. The first you come across as you walk east is the salmon and pink colored St. Barbara Church (see below), built in a neoclassical style in 1796 at a time when Russia was looking to the West. Unlike traditional Orthodox churches with their exotic, multicolored onion domes, this church features a modest rotunda.
Next door, built a hundred years earlier, is the Church of St. Maxim the Blessed. It has a simple silver dome and a leaning bell tower. Farther along is the Monastery of the Sign, with its central five-domed church in brown and gold. The Church of St. George, built in 1657, is down the street. Its bright blue domes atop red brick turrets are decorated with stars.
Other interesting buildings are wedged between the churches. The 500-year-old Old English Court is the restored home of the first British Embassy in Moscow. It features the thick walls and tiny windows necessary to survive a Russian winter before the advent of central heating and insulation. The same is true of the nearby Zaryadye Chambers, the original city dwelling of the Romanovs, one of Russia's most powerful noble families.

Below you see pictures of the churches of Ulitsa Varvarka


Saint Barbara Church, Moscow

Church of Saint Maxim the Blessed and Bell tower, Moscow


Monastery of the Sign, Moscow

Church of Saint George


Cathedral of the Archangel, detail
The Cathedral of the Archangel (Arkhangelsky sobor) is the name of several cathedrals in Russia.
One particular cathedral by this name stands on the Cathedral Square in the Moscow Kremlin. It was constructed between 1505 and 1508 under the supervision of an Italian architect Aleviz Fryazin Noviy on the spot of an older cathedral, built in 1333.
The interior is entirely covered with holy icons.It contains frescoes dating to the 16th and 17th centuries. Some of them were painted by Yakov of Kazan, Stepan of Ryazan, Joseph Vladimirov and others between 1652 and 1666.
Victories of the Russian military were celebrated in the Cathedral of the Archangel. Russian tsars and grand princes were buried within the cathedral until the 17th century, who remain there to this day (including Ivan I Kalita, Dmitri Donskoi, Ivan the Great, Ivan the Terrible). There are 54 burials in the cathedral, 46 ornamented white stone tombstones (1636-1637) and glazed cases made of bronze (1903). Tsarevich Demetrius, the son of Ivan the Terrible, was buried there in the early 1600s. Emperor Peter II is also interred there, the only post-Petrine monarch buried in the Kremlin (and the only one besides Ivan VI who is not buried in the Peter and Paul Cathedral in St. Petersburg.)
 


Church of the Deposition of the Robe
 

The Church of the Deposition of the Robe is a church which stands on Cathedral Square in the Moscow Kremlin. It was begun in 1484 by masters from Pskov, most likely by the same group of architects who built the adjacent Cathedral of the Annunciation.
The church was built on the site of a previous church, built by Jonah Metropolitan of Moscow in 1451. The name of the church, variously translated as the Church of the Virgin's Robe, The Church of Laying Our Lady’s Holy Robe, The Church of the Veil or simply Church of the Deposition, is said to refer to a festival dating from the 5th century AD, celebrating when the robe of the Virgin Mary was taken from Palestine to Constantinople, where it protected the city from being conquered.
 

Cathedral of the Dormition

The Cathedral of the Dormition (Russian: Uspensky Sobor) is the mother church of Muscovite Russia. The church stands on the Cathedral Square at the Moscow Kremlin and was built in 1475–1479 by the Italian architect Aristotele Fioravanti. In the 14th century, Metropolitan Peter persuaded Ivan I (Ivan Kalita) that he should build a cathedral to the Holy Virgin in Moscow like the Cathedral of the Dormition in the capital city Vladimir. Construction of the cathedral began on August 4, 1326. In the following year, Moscow became the capital of the Vladimir-Suzdal' principality, and later of all Rus.
By the end of the 15th century the old cathedral had become dilapidated, and in 1472 the Pskov architects Kryvtsov and Myshkin began construction of a new cathedral. Two years later, the building was nearing completion when it suddenly collapsed because of an earthquake — an extremely rare event in Moscow.
Ivan III then invited Aristotele Fioravanti, a celebrated architect and engineer from Bologna, Italy, to come to Moscow and entrusted him with the task of building the cathedral from scratch in the traditions of Russian architecture. The cathedral in Vladimir was once again taken as a model for the building, and so Fioravanti travelled to Vladimir in order to study Russian methods of building. He designed a light and spacious masterpiece that combined the spirit of the Renaissance with Russian traditions.
The foundation for the new cathedral was laid in 1475, and in 1479 the new cathedral was consecrated by Metropolitan Geronty.
 



Upper Saviour cathedral, Moscow, with many golden domes
 

Kazan Cathedral
 

Kazan Cathedral is a Russian Orthodox church located on the northeast corner of Red Square in Moscow. The current building is a reconstruction of the original church which was destroyed by Joseph Stalin in 1936.
The original church was erected as a shrine in the early 1630s to mark the city's liberation from the Polish aggressors by the Russian people's volunteer army at the close of the Time of Troubles.
Upon clearing Moscow from the Poles in 1612, Prince Dmitry Pozharsky attributed his success to the divine help of the icon Theotokos of Kazan, to whom he had prayed on several occasions. From his private funds, he financed construction of a wooden church to the Virgin of Kazan on Red Square in Moscow.
After the diminutive shrine was destroyed by fire in 1632, the Tsar ordered it replaced by a brick church. This one was consecrated in October 1636.
The distinguished Russian restorer Peter Baranovsky supervised a complete reconstruction of the church's exterior to its original design in 1929–1932. Some specialists, however, criticised the accuracy of this reconstruction.
In 1936, when Red Square was being prepared for holding the military parades of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin ordered the square cleared of churches. Although efforts were made by Baranovsky to save it, he could not prevent the Kazan Cathedral from being demolished.
After the fall of the Soviet Union, the Kazan Cathedral was the first church to be completely rebuilt. The cathedral's restoration (1990–1993) was based on the detailed measurements and photographs of the original church Peter Baranovsky made before its destruction in 1936.
 

St. Basils's cathedral, Red Square, Moscow

   

File:Cathédrale de l'Annonciation.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Cathedral of the Annunciation
 

The Cathedral of the Annunciation  is a cathedral in the Moscow Kremlin, dedicated to the Annunciation of the Theotokos. Formerly, the cathedral was a home church of the Muscovite tsars. The Cathedral of the Annunciation was built on the Sobornaya Square (Cathedral Square) by architects from Pskov in 1484-1489. Initially, the Cathedral of the Annunciation had three cupolas. It was surrounded by parvises from three sides. In 1562-1564, they built four single-cupola side chapels over the arched parvises. The north and west entrances from the parvise are decorated with whitestone portals of the 16th century.  The bronze doors of the north and west portals are decorated with gold foil. The walls contain fragments of murals, painted by Theodosius (1508) and others (second half of the 16th, 17th and 19th centuries). The iconostasis includes icons of the 14th-17th centuries, including the ones painted by Andrei Rublev, Feofan Grek and Prokhor, and 19th century, as well.

 

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SPAIN, St. John Baptist Chapel
 

TIBET

Xiahe, Labrangklooster,
Labrangmonastery
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lhasa, Jokhang

 Binnenzijde klooster Tibet,
inside the monastery
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lhasa, Jokhang

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lhasa, moskee,
mosque in Lhasa,

 
Deel 1: Canada t/m Italië , klik HIER   Part 1: Canada - Italy, click HERE  

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